Architectural logic of structural details

  Yi Lingjie, Li Xin.

Compared with the classical closure of the old museum, the new museum is very light and transparent.

▲ compared with the barrel arch (dark color: Main compressive stress line; light color: main tensile stress line), in fact, because the middle of the arch is longitudinally provided with a long groove, and the vertical support is 4 columns at both ends.

It is in this way that natural light determines the choice of room form.” therefore, from beginning to end, the shape of the roof does not deviate from the element of “arch”.

▲ the three columns at the entrance of kunsthal are I-steel, honeycomb I-steel and concrete square columns.

The architect Renzo Piano carried out the design of the new museum under great pressure.

The structure we are looking for is neither an imposed form nor a clumsy skeleton.” – Balmond.

Due to the limited site, the plane presents a Z-shaped shape.

Therefore, in most cases, the structure does not have to be, The display of details is the result of the joint efforts of architects and structural engineers.

The curves, broken lines and acute angles of Zaha’s staff are rarely calm and rational here.

Architect, 2017 (3): 59-66.4   Qi Yi, Zhang Shanshan.

The detailed structure of the structure may be of great significance to a building, especially for those exposed structures, it seems that it can trigger people to guess what the designers behind the details say.

▲ in order to transfer horizontal force, two groups of arched tie rods meet each other to ensure in-plane stability, and visual uncertainty brings unique experience.

Shaping into light — Design of cycloidal vault and light in kimbel Art Museum [J].

▲ the plane of the first floor may be the reason for the school building.

▲ on the premise of ensuring strength, stiffness and stability, Louis Kang, Bangladesh parliament building, has many choices for the form and connection of components.

▲   GrandLouvre▲   The same form of multi ribbed floor also appears on the central column.

Therefore, it is not the “tube arch” force transfer mode in the short span direction, but the “beam” force mode along the longitudinal direction.

For example, if we choose to adopt wood structure frame, there are many basic forms and combination methods for beams and columns.

Some structural details of their offices and warehouses reflect the delicacy and elegance of the products.

▲   The Evelyn grace acadyem kimbel Art Museum, located in Fort Worth, Texas, was built in 1972.

The radian of the cycloid connects with the vertical components more naturally and the space will not appear too high.

The juxtaposition of different materials and structural forms expresses an impromptu concept of “threshold”, which also conforms to the theme of the art museum.


In the underground square of the Louvre in Paris, France, in order to ensure the unity with the form of aboveground triangular pyramid, the floor adopts the method of multi rib truncated cone.

▲ introduce natural light diffuse reflection through slotting in the middle ▲ the profile shows that from the first folded plate to the later semicircle, ellipse and arc, it is finally determined to use the cycloid method to construct the roof.

However, in the face of such a classic, what kind of attitude to define the new museum has become a huge problem.

Respect and freedom — Interpretation of the new museum of kimbel Art Museum [J].

It is questionable that we are only satisfied with the horizontal and vertical beam column system.

Tobius Grau company in Germany is engaged in high-end furniture customization.

▲   Chamfered column   Usually, the shear wall is straight up and down on the facade, but in the project of Evelyn Grace Academy by Zaha Hadid, the element of inclination continues to appear.

Because the floor itself is thick, whether these thin rods are used to suspend the floor or pull down the roof for wind suction is the charm of structural details.

▲ the concrete column of the new pavilion is a frame structure composed of a split wood beam and a light steel structure roof.

The museum wants to introduce natural light, but it can’t be too dazzling.

▲ another interesting aspect of the overall stress of the floor (column 40cm / inclined plate 40cm / roof 30cm) is the internal thin pull rods set at the cantilever plate.

In order to achieve the ideal artistic effect of medium light, Kang spent nearly three years studying the skylight lighting system of kimbel Art Museum.

The inclined column and inclined wall bring strong movement and metaphor for the form of sprint.

▲ in the 1980s, the new museum and the old museum needed to be expanded because the exhibition needed to be expanded.

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▲ in the lecture hall, all columns in the lecture hall are inclined columns and tend to one side of the podium.

It brings together several galleries and halls, which can provide maximum flexibility and accommodate many exhibitions and activities that can coexist alone or together.

At the beginning of design, it is hoped to use the frame on the right to withstand the overturning force on the left, but it will cause significant uneven settlement to the frame, so the support effect cannot be achieved.

▲   The entrance column is in hall 2 of the exhibition hall, and the thin red rods expand along the arch on the plane.

Architect, 2015 (4): 66-76.3.

The structural engineer August kommendant arranges prestressed tendons along the direction of the main tensile stress line, and the thickness of the thinnest shell is 102mm.

▲ kimbel Art Museum ▲ architectural poetry philosophy – Louis Kang museum is “arched” as a whole, supported by columns at both ends.

The traditional rectangular column is chamfered to form a complex section.

▲   Evelyn grace acadyem is above the runway.

▲ roof thinking process ▲ cycloid   Kang believes that “the vault is an interface that can accept light, and the measurement of indoor space comes from the perception of light position.

▲ office shuttle column ▲ warehouse wooden structure Evelina children’s Hospital in London adopts transparent single-layer reticulated shell and exquisite exposed double cantilever support plate nodes to minimize the stereotype of the hospital.

▲   Steel structure beam column form ▲   The beam column form of concrete structure is “enthusiastic about the limited architectural vocabulary such as high-tech steel frame and steel cable.

▲ because the arch tie rod is broken by the beam and has an unusual shape, we may wonder, is it a structure? Is it a graph? Or is it a building installation? All three, said barmond, a structural engineer.

The reason for all these efforts is to ensure the unity and purity of geometry.

▲ due to the limited space, some interesting cases will not be discussed in detail.

▲ in the form of wood structure beam and column, for steel or concrete, different combination forms caused by the atmosphere created by the material and stress performance will also bring completely different feelings.

▲   Evelina children’s Hospital ▲ rigid cantilever node reference: 1   StructureAsArchitecture.AndrewCharleson.2.

▲ new museum structure   Built in 1992, kunsthal is located in the museumpark community in Rotterdam.

It is a classic work of the architect Louis Kahn.

The separation of the wood beam and the column top also fully shows the artistry and practicability of the modern multi material combination of “light”.

Lifting Socket

Kunsthal is known as a museum without collection (only providing curatorial venues and no collections in the Museum).

The pictures in this article are from the Internet, and the copyright belongs to the original author or website source: istructure (ID: istructure2017).

▲ the final solution of design thinking is to make thick inclined plate and roof, so that the whole is a “concrete truss” to solve the problem of overturning force.


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