Quadrangle building and its structure (2) screen wall


The screen wall is a decorative wall inside and outside the courtyard house

.

Its function is to block the cluttered and rigid walls or scenery inside and outside the house, beautify the environment of the entrance and exit of the house, so that when people go in and out of the house, the first thing they see is the well built and exquisitely carved walls and the auspicious words carved on them, so as to get a good visual and psychological feeling

.

There are three kinds of screen walls used in quadrangles

.

The first is located inside the door of the house, which is a shadow wall, also known as the screen wall

.

This kind of screen wall is generally located in the South gable of the East Chamber of the quadrangle

.

If it is built separately, it is called independent shadow wall; if it is built on the gable of the wing room and connected with the gable, it is called sitting shadow wall

.

The second one is the shadow wall outside the door of the house

.

This kind of shadow wall is located on the opposite side of the door and separated from the door by hutongs

.

There are two common forms: the one character shadow wall with the shape of one line on the plane and the eight character shadow wall with the shape of N on the plane

.

This kind of screen wall is either separated from the opposite courtyard wall for a certain distance, or built outside the opposite courtyard wall

.

It is mainly used to cover the opposite house and the irregular corner cornice, giving the people who come out of the house a neat and beautiful pleasant feeling

.

There is also a kind of shadow wall, which is inclined on both sides of the gable head in front of the house, and forms an angle of 60 ° or 45 ° with the door of the house

.

The plane is in the shape of eight characters, which is called “anti eight character shadow wall” or “paishan shadow wall”

.

In addition to the above functions, this kind of anti eight character screen wall also broadens the space in front of the door and sets off the house door

.

As an independent building, shadow wall has its own architectural form

.

The screen wall used in folk houses has two main shapes: hard mountain type and hanging mountain type

.

The shape of hard mountain shadow wall is like a hard mountain building

.

On the facade, it is composed of three sections: the base (equivalent to the platform part of the hard mountain building), the wall (equivalent to the frame part of the hard mountain building), and the roof (equivalent to the roof part of the hard mountain building)

.

This imitation of the hard Mountain Architecture (or the isomorphic relationship between the shadow wall and the corresponding architectural form) is more obvious from its wall body

.

The central part of hard mountain shadow wall consists of horseshoe, brick pillar, big square, line square, ear and three fork head

.

These components respectively imitate the top stone, eaves column, eaves brace, sill frame, three fork head, hoop head brace and other components of the wooden hard mountain building, and the butting (wall) part outside the brick column is just equivalent to the gable end of the hard mountain building

.

The same is true of the hanging mountain shadow wall

.

From the facade, it is completely isomorphic with the suspended Mountain Architecture: the bottom of the shadow wall is the base, which is equivalent to the platform of the suspended Mountain Architecture; the middle part of the horseshoe, brick columns, big Fangzi, line Fangzi, which is equivalent to the top stone, column, forehead Fang, sill frame of the suspended mountain architecture; The shape and composition of the upper roof protruding from the two mountains are similar to those of the suspended mountain buildings, with sanchatou, swallow tail Fang and Bo seam board

.

There is no bump on both sides of the screen wall, which is directly related to the fact that there is no bump on both sides of the screen wall

.

1

.

The base of the shadow wall is equivalent to the base of the building

.

There are usually two methods for platform foundation: one is straight square platform foundation, the other is xumizuo platform foundation

.

The bottom of the hard mountain screen wall is square

.

This kind of choice corresponds to the grade of isomorphic architecture

.

The base of hanging mountain shadow wall is generally xumizuo type

.

Xumizuo, a shadow wall used in residential buildings, is usually built with bricks, but rarely with stones

.

2

.

The most important part of the wall body is the wall center within the scope of the line, which is called the shadow wall center

.

There are two ways to make the screen wall hard and soft

.

The hard core method is to stick the inclined square brick in the core, and adopt the method of grinding the brick to the joint, which is meticulous and exquisite

.

There are different ways to make and carve the shadow wall

.

Plain work is only pasted with square bricks on the wall, which is simple and elegant; traditional decorative patterns should be carved in the center and four corners of the carving, which are central flowers and Chajiao flowers

.

The carving content depends on the owner’s interests

.

There are also brick plaques carved in the center of the screen wall, inscribed with such auspicious words as “peace”, “auspicious”, “Jidi”, “Hongxi”

.

The shadow wall core of soft core method is to build a brick wall in the wall core, and then plaster white ash on the surface

.

This is a low-level practice, generally used in small houses

.

The soft core method of the screen wall is also matched with the level of the screen wall itself

.

The facade form of the screen wall adopting the soft core method is also different from the above-mentioned “hard mountain screen wall” and “hanging mountain screen wall”, because the facade form of the screen wall is similar to the platform building in the civil house

.

3

.

Because of the isomorphic relationship between the roof of shadow wall and the roof of hard mountain or suspended mountain building, there are two cases in practice

.

One is to imitate the practice of ridging roof, the middle of shadow wall roof does not make a high ridge

.

This method is mostly used for independent screen wall

.

For the shadow wall on the gable, the roof usually adopts the method of straight ridge, making the shape of clear ridge along the ridge

.

The screen wall roof adopts small green tile instead of sheet tile

.

To be continued ~ free technical consultation, peers and ancient architecture lovers are welcome to exchange and learn.

.

Tags:

Related Post

[daily clock in, four masters of modernist architecture school] the first and second examinations of the history of external construction[daily clock in, four masters of modernist architecture school] the first and second examinations of the history of external construction

The online construction network postgraduate entrance examination public welfare live broadcast course jhsh | construction software teaching department 2022 autumn | winter vacation construction software all-round class and software works