Whenever it rains, the rainwater will flow into the courtyard from the four roofs.
Chinese folk houses are representative folk houses with local characteristics designed and built by local residents.
The narrow river surface can directly erect beams in the air, and the wide river surface will erect stone columns in the water to support the buildings above.
The four water return hall is a kind of folk house in the form of courtyard.
■ The combination form of two triangles in the folk houses in southern Anhui is the combination form of two triangles, that is, the house connected by the front and back of the two triangles.
■ The Sanheyuan in the folk houses in southern Anhui is a main hall and left and right wing rooms, surrounded by a patio.
The combination form of two quadrangles is the house connected by two quadrangles.
These forms mainly include cliff type, independent type and sinking type.
■ The quadrangle courtyard in the folk houses in southern Anhui has an inverted room with a hall in front of the courtyard, so it has become a form of three rooms and two entrances.
■ From the whole development history of Chinese dwellings, cave dwellings evolved from the cave and semi cave forms of primitive society.
Each courtyard has a main hall.
Even between the pool and the houses, there are all kinds of small bridges with different shapes, vivid, dexterous and beautiful, showing the moving charm of the water town in the south of the Yangtze River.
Among them, the most basic courtyard forms are Sanheyuan and Siheyuan, while other forms are changed on the basis of Sanheyuan and siheyuan.
The upper hall is a place for sacrificing relatives within the Five Dynasties; The central hall, which is the housekeeping center, is dedicated to the memorial tablet of Tiandi Jun’s parents and teachers; The lower hall, the entrance hall, is set up to set off the atmosphere.
The reason for this classification method is that although they are located on the Loess Plateau, not every place has the same terrain, so different forms of caves have been excavated and built according to the specific location and situation.
When excavating a sunken cave, first dig a large square and concave pit on the ground, and make its four sides vertical as the cliff body for excavating the cave.
In Feng Shui, it is said that “the front is low and the rear is high, and the descendants are heroes”.
■ The size of the sunken cave yard, the depth of the sunken cave yard, that is, the height from the ground in the yard to the natural ground above, is generally about 10m.
■ There are water places and bridges in water villages.
The larger one can become a part of the house; Small overhanging can be used as eaves Gallery, similar to balcony; The smallest can only pick out a back railing outside the house to enjoy the cool, bask in the sun and enjoy the scenery.
Its practical function is not very large, so the courtyard is mostly built by richer families.
In other words, this kind of courtyard combination form is generally the courtyard of the triad type in the front, while the courtyard of the quadrangle type in the back.
The so-called “four water return hall” means that the roofs of folk houses are in the form of slopes, and the slopes are inclined to the courtyard.
On the water surface of the streets and rivers in the water town, there will be a bridge connecting the two sides of the river not far away.
Sanheyuan is the simplest and economical courtyard form of folk houses in southern Anhui, which is widely used.
Upstairs, the Ming room is used as the ancestral hall for sacrificing ancestors, and the left and right secondary rooms are used as bedrooms; The downstairs open room is used as the living room and the left and right secondary rooms are used as houses.
■ The four water return hall is a folk house in southern Anhui.
The bridge is not only an important facility for connecting traffic, but also a scene in water villages.
However, because of its narrow external space, it has the advantage of avoiding wind and sand, can adjust the microclimate, and can be warm in winter and cool in summer.
It is too deep, inconvenient to access, too shallow, and the kiln top is not strong.
The two courtyards are like back-to-back, each with a patio.
On a longitudinal axis, the arrangement of front and rear courtyards is commonly known as “rising step by step”.
In addition to the influence of environmental and regional factors, there is also a moral to build this four water return hall style, that is, it means that “fat water does not flow into outsiders’ fields” and gathers Qi and wealth, which is in line with Huizhou merchants who are good at gathering money and doing business.
Some people use “pillow flow architecture” to connect the houses on both sides of the river because they have their own houses on both sides of the river.
Yangou cave faces a relatively narrow valley, so there is no open external space of mountain cave.
Then, like excavating a cliff cave, dig several caves horizontally inward on the four vertical walls to form an underground courtyard composed of four caves.
The size of the courtyard is 9 meters long and 9 meters wide, or 12 meters long and 9 meters wide..
The four storey courtyard is called the four entrance hall, the five storey courtyard is called the five entrance hall, and there are even nine entrance halls in southern Anhui.
■ Diaojiaolou in Shuixiang folk houses refers to a small part of the original folk houses protruding on the water, which must be supported by wooden columns or stone columns.
Naturally, there are also bridges.
The inverted house of the courtyard is an architectural element set up to increase the momentum of the courtyard and show the strength of the family.
The courtyard combination of folk houses in southern Anhui mainly includes Sanheyuan, Siheyuan, two Sanheyuan, two Siheyuan, one Sanheyuan and one siheyuan.
Because on the Loess Plateau, some places will also be endless flat land, and there are no natural cliffs or gullies that can be used to excavate cliff style caves, people will excavate underground caves that develop downward.
The lower side of the utility model can also be provided with steps leading to the water surface, so as to facilitate family washing and water intake.
Compared with the combination of two quadrangles, it has only two halls in the middle and rear, while there is no front hall at the front gate, that is, there is no lower hall, just a wall.
It includes the style and form of architecture, which has different changes in different historical periods and different regions.
Cave is one of the unique Chinese folk houses.
■ The method of picking out is called “picking out”, and the selected part is also called “picking out”.
Every time you enter a hall, you will rise one level.
It seems that the two halls in the middle form a ridge, so it is commonly known as “turning two halls with one ridge”.
The front and last parts are walls rather than halls, and only the middle part of the joint of the two houses is a hall.
■ The combination form of two quadrangles in the folk houses in southern Anhui.
■ The courtyard combination form of Wannan folk houses “four water return hall” refers to the form and relationship between patio and room in Wannan folk houses, while the courtyard combination of Wannan folk houses is another concept.
First, the downstairs open room is the lobby, both sides are wing rooms, the upstairs open room is the main room, and both sides are bedrooms; Second, the downstairs Mingjian is the living room, and the upstairs Mingjian is the ancestral hall.
■ Yangou cave Yangou cave belongs to cliff type, which is a cave excavated in the loess layer on the walls of both banks of the gully.
■ The combination of a courtyard and a quadrangle in the folk houses in southern Anhui is a house composed of a courtyard and a quadrangle.
Of course, “pillow flow” can only be built where there is no waterway traffic, and the river must also be its own private property.
The most typical form of folk houses in southern Anhui is “four water return hall”.
It is a good place.
Most of the Sanheyuan houses are two-story houses with one entrance, and the main roof is wide, often with three bays.
■ “Pillow flow” is the form that the whole building is built on the river.
The extended part can be the second floor of the house, that is, the upper floor of the building, or can be used as a balcony.
This compound form is to divide the middle hall into two spaces for the front and rear courtyards.
■ Sunken cave sunken cave is a cave dug down on the ground.
Between the two entrances is a rectangular patio, along the walls on both sides are corridor houses, which are equipped with stairs.
Residential buildings refer to the traditional Chinese people’s residential buildings.
In terms of architectural layout and structural form, there are roughly three kinds of cave dwellings, and they are several forms owned by all regions taking cave dwellings as their living form.
This compound consists of three halls and two patios.
Cave dwellings are mostly distributed in the Loess Plateau with various landforms.