Hospital building emission reduction: energy saving transformation and improving indoor air quality

Finally, according to the energy-saving effect and budget, the automatic management system to achieve high efficiency and energy saving by installing indoor carbon dioxide detection probe and fresh air switch valve is determined as the focus of this energy-saving transformation project.

In addition, there are special medical requirements, so higher requirements are put forward for hospital energy conservation.

For example, the flow of people in different areas of outpatient and emergency department is large and the mobility of personnel is strong, while the number of inpatients in the comprehensive building is large and there are many functional divisions.

It mainly relies on mechanical ventilation devices such as central air conditioning system to regulate indoor air quality.

Due to lack of ventilation and large flow of people, the CO2 concentration fluctuated greatly, exceeding 1000ppm at one time, It reaches a value of about 2000 ppm.

Due to different use characteristics and time, the energy consumption per unit area of medical buildings is about twice that of ordinary public buildings.

At the same time, with the growth of global population and the increase of medical demand, the development and operation of the medical industry are also producing carbon emissions that can not be ignored.

Huashan Hospital has been established for a long time, and the energy consumption required is also different due to the different construction time and functions of each building.

The “global road map for decarbonization of the medical sector” released in 2021 also shows that carbon reduction in the operation of building facilities and services is the first major path for decarbonization of the medical industry.

When the CO2 concentration is higher than the safety value, alarm and remind, and increase the outdoor fresh air volume at the same time, so as to reduce the CO2 concentration below the safety value meeting the needs of human health; Second, when the CO2 concentration in public places is below the safe value, reduce the amount of outdoor fresh air.

Building 1 of Huashan Hospital was built in 2003.

[1] This index undoubtedly reminds us that the medical industry plays an important role in the face of climate change.

Total full text   two thousand seven hundred and sixty-six   word   Estimated reading time is about   seven point five   In recent years, climate change has intensified, and the resulting impact on human health has gradually deteriorated.

This project is a demonstration project of energy audit and energy conservation transformation of air conditioning system in medical and health institutions funded by the United Nations Development Programme global environment facility small grant project (undp-gef-sgp), and a pilot project for the purpose of mitigating climate change, For the national medical institutions as a model for reference and learning.

In the project of Huashan Hospital, after a month’s overall energy testing and review by the team of awakening teachers of Tongji University, three energy-saving paths are given, namely, reducing energy demand, using renewable energy and high-efficiency energy-saving technology products.

Founded in 1907, Huashan Hospital Affiliated to Fudan University is a famous class III class a general hospital located in the center of Shanghai.

The project is led by Pan Zhishi environment and energy research center of Shunyi District, Beijing, and implemented in Huashan Hospital, a member hospital under the special committee, in cooperation with the green hospital professional committee of China Building Energy Conservation Association.

During the early energy audit and detection, Mr.

[2] In September 2020, with the rapid growth of China’s economy, the challenge of putting forward the 3060 double carbon target is huge.

Due to the complex building environment and special use situation of medical institutions, there are more twists and turns on the road of energy conservation and emission reduction.

Fixing Socket

Su of Tongji University collected the CO2 changes in typical areas for a week.

Providing patients with a healthier and better treatment environment, advanced medical technology and diagnosis and treatment equipment has become the top priority, but at the same time, it leads to the increase of hospital building energy consumption year by year.

[3] In 2006, China’s green building evaluation standard defined “green building” as “a building that can save resources (energy, land, water and materials) to the greatest extent, protect the environment and reduce pollution, provide people with healthy, applicable and efficient use space, and coexist harmoniously with nature within the whole life cycle of the building”.

In 2020, the carbon dioxide emissions related to construction and operation account for 20% of the total national emissions, and the emissions of commercial and public buildings with high population density account for about 20%.

Before the transformation, the fresh air system of the building was kept open for 24 hours, and the switch was a very inconvenient manual valve.

When the concentration exceeds 2000ppm, it is seriously polluted, which will lead to people’s deepening breathing, headache, tinnitus, positive blood pressure and other symptoms..

Once the delivered air volume is insufficient, oxygen is lack and indoor air is dirty, it will become a place for the spread of some respiratory infectious diseases and affect the health of users.

The outpatient building of Huashan Hospital is a public environment with dense flow of people.

It is designed to accommodate 6000 patients per day, and now there are about 10000 outpatients per day.

60% of the energy in buildings is used for air and water heating, and 7% for air conditioning and refrigeration.

Figure 2: daily flow of people in the outpatient area on the third floor of Building 1 of Huashan Hospital photographer: Panyi people’s hospital has complex building energy consumption, many types of energy, a wide range of departments involved, and different energy consumption times.

There are two main purposes of the outdoor carbon dioxide (CO2) concentration monitoring fresh air linkage system in Huashan Hospital Building 1 this time: one is to detect the CO2 concentration in public places at all times.

When it is very hot or cold in summer and winter, the long-term open fresh air system will greatly affect the adjustment of indoor temperature, resulting in high-frequency operation of refrigeration or heating system and unnecessary energy waste.

Medical departments are encouraged to intervene in greenhouse gas emissions as much as possible under the environment of ensuring patients’ treatment.

Accurate, long-term and real-time energy data is the basis of energy conservation.

Studying and mastering the temporal and spatial distribution of hospital energy consumption and improving the analysis of energy consumption monitoring data and the excavation of correlation laws are the basis of hospital energy conservation.

Large public hospitals in the center of first tier cities such as Huashan Hospital are comprehensive buildings with a wide range of influence, which are different from shopping malls and hotel buildings.

There are many ways to implement the transformation, such as regularly cleaning the air-conditioning return air network, increasing the heat insulation transformation of shading, improving daily use habits and so on.

In the indoor environment, when the concentration of carbon dioxide exceeds 1000ppm, many people will feel uncomfortable; When the concentration of carbon dioxide reaches 1500ppm-2000ppm, the air is slightly polluted.

Among them, infrastructure construction and medical service operation are the core of the carbon emissions of the medical industry.

Figure 1: Huashan Hospital energy conservation and emission reduction day publicity photographer: Pan Yiren’s small sum action.

The collection and sorting showed that the CO2 concentration in the hospital was concentrated at 500-1000ppm on the whole, especially in the infusion room and emergency room of Building 1.

Among all energy consumption systems of hospital buildings, air conditioning energy consumption accounts for the largest proportion, which is also the focus of hospital energy-saving transformation in China.

Under China’s dual carbon goal, the medical industry must recognize that the climate crisis is also a health crisis and be a pioneer and leader on the road of carbon neutralization.

With the increase of medical demand and the reform of medical technology, the variability and adaptability of medical buildings are increasing.

The project hopes to effectively reduce the energy consumption and carbon emission of hospital air conditioning system by carrying out low-cost energy-saving transformation of hospital air conditioning system.

After the fresh air enters, it will affect the balance of indoor temperature and reduce the energy consumption required to process the fresh air, so as to save energy and reduce energy waste.

According to the World Health Organization (who) air pollution index released at the end of September, air pollution causes 7 million premature deaths worldwide every year.

Hospitals should keep historical data as much as possible, increase the use of building automation management system, and, if possible, conduct a comprehensive energy audit before and after the implementation of energy-saving projects, so as to find the most suitable emission reduction scheme according to the audit results.

In China, the carbon emission of the medical industry accounts for 3.1% of the national carbon emission, of which the carbon emission used in infrastructure accounts for 13.3%.


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