Four principles of architecture in Ming and Qing Dynasties


The series of Chinese ancient architecture philosopher’s house introduces the structure of Chinese ancient architecture, including lower, middle, upper and wood decoration

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Today’s introduction — four principles of Chinese ancient architecture in Ming and Qing Dynasties

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That is to say, the wood structure of four types of Architecture: veranda building, Xieshan building, Xuanshan building and hard mountain building

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Among them, the level of the veranda is the highest, followed by Xieshan, Xuanshan and hard mountain, and the hard mountain is the lowest

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The following are the first, the second, the third, the fourth, the fourth, the third, the third, the third, the fourth, the third, the fourth, the third, the third, the third, the fourth, the third, the third, the third, the third, the third, the third, the third, the third, the third, the third, the third, the third, the third, the third, the third

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There are two kinds of buildings with Dougong and without Dougong in the large-scale hard mountain buildings

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The large-scale hard mountain buildings without Dougong are significantly higher than the small-scale buildings in volume, scale and materials (see the differences between large and small buildings below for details)

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Knowledge point 1: the characteristics of hard mountain architecture need to be clear about the shape and structural characteristics of hard Mountain Architecture (1) application scope of hard Mountain Architecture: it is the most common architectural form in Chinese traditional wooden architecture, and is widely used in residential buildings, gardens and temples

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(2) appearance characteristics of hard mountain building: the roof of hard mountain building has only two slopes, the gables on both sides intersect with the roof, and the two gable purlin beams are all sealed in the gable

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(3) The structural characteristics of hard Mountain Architecture: the wooden frame of hard mountain architecture is the most basic structural form of beam lifting structure, and also the main frame of other types of buildings

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(4) Hard mountain rule: the two mountain ends of truss purlin are flush with the outer skin of two mountain beam frame

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Hard Mountain Architecture (small style) hard Mountain Architecture (a large style, B large style) hard Mountain Architecture (large style) hard Mountain Architecture (wood frame) hard Mountain Architecture – knowledge point extension of hard mountain rule: what is small style architecture? What is big architecture? We need to know the difference between small style and large style

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(1) small style buildings are mostly used in residential quadrangles and other buildings

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(2) Large buildings are mostly used in palaces, temples, mansions, government offices, royal gardens and other buildings

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There are both large and small types and miscellaneous types of suspended Hill buildings

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There are two types of large-scale suspended Hill buildings with Dougong and without Dougong

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Large scale suspended Hill buildings without Dougong are significantly higher than small-scale buildings in volume, scale and materials (see the differences between large-scale and miscellaneous buildings below for details)

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Knowledge points: the features of the suspended mountain architecture need to be clear about the shape and structural features of the suspended Mountain Architecture (1) the application scope of the suspended Mountain Architecture: the suspended mountain architecture is a common architectural form in traditional Chinese wooden architecture, and it is often used in folk houses, gardens and temples

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(2) The appearance characteristics of the suspended Hill Building: the roof of the suspended Hill building has only two slopes, which is different from the hard hill in that the gables on both sides of the suspended Hill building are suspended at both ends of the roof, the truss purlin frame is exposed, the elephant eye plate should be blocked, or the gable is folded with the beam frame, or the wall body is sealed to the top, only the exposed purlin and swallow tail Fang are exposed

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(3) The structural characteristics of the suspended Hill Building: the timber frame of the suspended Hill building is mainly composed of hardwood frame, the truss purlin between the two ends overhanging out a certain size, the roof overhanging out of the two Gables, and the end of the truss purlin is sealed with wooden joint plate

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The most desirable part of this method is that it not only makes the wood members exposed, which is conducive to the ventilation and anti-corrosion of the wood members, but also changes the monotonous and rigid shape of the gable and enriches the facade effect of the gable

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In the practice of hanging mountain, one is to seal the wall to the top

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The other is that the gable wall is only built under the beam, all the wood members above the beam are exposed, and the elephant eye of the beam frame should be blocked

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These two methods have their own advantages and disadvantages

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(4) The rule of overhanging Mountains: overhanging four rafters from the eaves, columns and columns of the two mountains in the board of two mountains (or the same as the size of the building)

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Overhanging building overhanging building – overhanging note: the various forms of overhanging shown in the figure are different from the “overhanging size” specified in the “overhanging rule”, for reference

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There are two kinds of large Xieshan buildings: with Dougong and without Dougong

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Large Xieshan buildings without Dougong are significantly higher than small ones in volume, scale and materials (see the difference between large and small buildings and miscellaneous buildings below)

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Knowledge points: Xieshan architectural features need to be clear about the shape and structural features of Xieshan architecture (1) application scope of Xieshan architecture: Xieshan architecture is the most basic and common architectural form in Chinese traditional large-scale wooden architecture, and is widely used in palaces, temples, mansions, government offices and royal gardens

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(2) The shape characteristics of Xieshan building: the roof form of Xieshan building has four slopes, the front and back two slopes, one slope to the top, the two mountain roofs are divided into two sections, the lower half of the cornice roof and the front and back slope cornice roof intersect on all sides, in the form of a veranda; the upper half of the cornice roof is straight up and down, in the form of a suspended mountain

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Xieshan building is a structural form developed from the timber frame of Xuanshan building and veranda building

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It is an organic combination of Xuanshan roof and veranda roof

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The upper part is the roof with two slopes before and after Xuanshan, and the lower part is the roof with four slopes crossing the four corners of veranda

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(3) The structural characteristics of Xieshan architecture: the wood frame of Xieshan architecture is mainly made of hardwood frame, and the beam frame between the two ends makes changes of components according to the requirements of architectural modeling

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Specifically, the long lying beam, the straight lying beam or the angle plastering beam are installed between the building tips according to a certain size, so as to undertake the unique components of Xieshan architecture, such as stepping gold, grass frame column, mountain flower board, broad seam board, etc

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At the same time, the gold purlin below the integral beam frame is taken as the boundary, and the roof part is divided into upper and lower sections

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The upper section is based on the practice of overhanging mountain, the gold purlin between the tips is overhanging to the mountain surface, and the outer end of the purlin wood is installed with mountain flower board and broad seam board

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The lower section is based on the practice of veranda, “the four corner beams are raised, and the roof four slopes intersect.” It is often a practical and beautiful structure

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(4) The law of closing the mountain (stopping the mountain): from the purlin (truss) of the eaves on the mountain surface to the inside, the diameter of the purlin (truss) is the outer skin of the mountain flower board, that is, the inner skin of the broad seam board

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Xieshan architecture (imitating Tang single eaves Xieshan Architecture) Xieshan architecture (imitating Tang double eaves Xieshan Architecture) Xieshan architecture (song and Yuan single eaves Xieshan Architecture) Xieshan architecture (song and Liao double eaves Xieshan Architecture) Xieshan architecture (Ming and Qing double eaves Xieshan Architecture) Xieshan architecture (Ming and Qing double eaves Xieshan Architecture) Xieshan architecture (song and Liao double eaves Xieshan Architecture) Xieshan architecture (wooden frame) Xieshan architecture (wooden frame) Xieshan architecture comparison of two mountains (song and Yuan Dynasties) Xieshan architecture comparison of two mountains (Ming and Qing Dynasties) Xieshan Architecture — Xieshan architecture with different mountain closing scale — knowledge point extension of mountain closing rule: the unique components of Xieshan architecture need to know what the unique components of Xieshan architecture are Among them, the rear ends of the front and rear eaves and rafters are set on the lower gold purlin of the front and rear eaves, and the rear ends of the two mountain eaves and rafters are set on a special component of the mountain which is neither beam nor purlin

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Only Xieshan architecture has this special component called “stepping gold” (stepping gold is a special component often used in Xieshan architecture of Qing Dynasty)

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It has a prototype in song style architecture, which is called “tie tou Yao”

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In the architecture of Xieshan in Ming Dynasty, trampoline appeared in the form of truss purlin, which is called trampoline purlin

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Stepping gold is a member whose body is like a beam and both ends are like purlin

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It is located in the plane position of the purlin under the mountain

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Step on the outside side of the gold to chisel rafters nest to set up the mountain eaves rafters, beam body installed melon column or pier to undertake the above beam frame, its length is equivalent to the corresponding body part of the beam frame length (the end of the additional size is calculated), such as a seven purlin Xieshan step on the gold length is equivalent to the body part of the five beams

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Nine purlin Xieshan step gold, the length is equivalent to seven beams

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Due to the structural requirements, the elevation of the stepping gold base is one level higher than that of the corresponding beam frame of the main body (one level is the height of the base plate).

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