Definition and accounting of energy consumption and carbon emission in China’s construction industry


On the one hand, large-scale construction activities consume a lot of building materials, and the production, transportation and other processes of these building materials produce a lot of energy consumption and emissions, which occupy a considerable proportion in the whole society of our country [1]

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Figure 1 boundary of energy consumption and carbon emission in the field of building 1.1 definition of energy consumption in building construction energy consumption in building construction stage refers to the energy consumption caused by building construction, which is generated by the production of building materials and on-site construction [2]

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Among them, the production stage of building materials refers to the process from raw materials entering the factory to finished building materials leaving the factory, and its energy consumption mainly includes direct or indirect energy consumption of production system; the transportation process of building materials refers to the process from building materials leaving the factory to building materials arriving at the construction site, mainly including the energy consumption of building materials transportation vehicles; the energy consumption of on-site construction stage mainly includes the energy consumption of on-site construction equipment Consumption

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In the past two decades, with the rapid development of urbanization in China, the rapid growth of construction scale has also led to the continuous growth of energy consumption and emissions in the field of construction in China

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The energy consumption and emission of the construction phase involved in this study refers to the construction of civil buildings in particular

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1

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Under the above background, it is of great significance to comprehensively understand and analyze the current situation of building energy consumption and emission in China

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At the same time, domestic and international energy supply and demand pattern is in the key node of change, in the context of energy supply structure change, the development of energy consumption in the field of construction should also adapt to it

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For example, in China’s energy balance sheet, the energy consumption of construction industry specifically refers to the energy consumption of construction enterprises [7], mainly including the energy consumption of construction site, which can not reflect the real impact of construction on the energy consumption of the whole society

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The energy consumption of raw material mining, building material production, transportation and on-site construction caused by building construction also accounts for more than 20% of the total energy consumption of the whole society

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With the development of economy and society, people’s living standards are constantly improving, which makes the terminal energy demand and carbon emissions of heating, air conditioning, domestic hot water, household appliances and so on continue to rise [2]

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However, due to the obvious regional and urban-rural differences in China’s building energy consumption, the total building energy consumption and building energy consumption intensity under this statistical caliber can not reflect the real characteristics of China’s building energy consumption

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Therefore, it is of great significance to comprehensively understand and analyze the current situation of China’s building energy consumption and carbon emissions

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For the energy consumption in the construction field, some studies only account for the energy consumption in the building operation stage, while some studies also consider the energy consumption in the building construction and building operation stages, which leads to great differences in the total energy consumption in the construction field given by different studies

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For example, IPCC only accounts for direct carbon emissions caused by direct combustion of fossil fuels in buildings based on producer responsibility method [8], while indirect carbon emissions caused by the use of electricity, heat and building materials are not included in the accounting scope, which can not fully reflect the operation and construction of the construction sector The real impact of climate change caused by climate change and other activities

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The consumption of other building materials and production energy consumption are relatively small, which are ignored here

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Introduction: energy consumption and emission in China’s construction field is an important part of the whole society’s energy consumption and emission, and also the focus of China’s energy conservation, emission reduction and energy consumption reform

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China’s building operation energy consumption accounts for about 20% of the total energy consumption of the whole society

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1.2 for the definition and classification of building operation energy consumption, refer to the definition of “building energy consumption” in the energy consumption standard for civil buildings (GB / t51161-2016) [10], which refers to “the energy input from outside in the process of building use, including the energy used to maintain the building environment (such as heating, cooling, ventilation, air conditioning and lighting, etc.) and all kinds of activities in the building (such as office, household appliances, elevator, etc.) (domestic hot water, etc.)

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Key words: building energy efficiency; bottom-up model; energy consumption; carbon emission; low carbon development Author: Hu Shan, Zhang Yang, Yan Da, Guo Jianyue, Liu Ye, Jiang yi0, Tsinghua University

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Therefore, this study defines the energy consumption and greenhouse gas emissions in China’s construction field, establishes the China building energy and emission model, calculates the energy consumption and emissions of China’s construction scale, construction and operation stages based on statistical data and field survey data, and analyzes the energy consumption and emissions of China’s construction field Finally, the paper puts forward the policy suggestions of energy saving and low carbon development in the field of construction

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In the general statistical caliber, civil building construction, production building (non civil building) construction and infrastructure construction belong to the construction industry [9], as shown in Figure 2

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From the perspective of energy consumption, energy consumption in the construction field includes two parts: building construction energy consumption and building operation energy consumption

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The following defines building construction energy consumption and emission, and building operation energy consumption and emission respectively

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In this study, the types of buildings involved only refer to civil buildings, including: residential buildings, office buildings, schools, shopping malls, hotels, transportation hubs, sports and entertainment facilities, but not industrial buildings.

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Therefore, this study focuses on the two stages of building construction and operation, as shown in Figure 1

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On the other hand, the growing building area also leads to more building operation energy consumption

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In the past two decades, China’s rapid urbanization has led to the continuous growth of the construction scale, and the energy consumption and carbon emission of China’s construction field has become an important part of the energy consumption and emission of the whole society

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For the types of building materials, referring to the statistical yearbook of China’s construction industry [9], four types of building materials are mainly considered: steel, cement, aluminum and flat glass

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This study mainly considers the energy consumption involved in the production, transportation and on-site construction of building materials

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As the main part of energy consumption, the importance of building energy consumption will continue to increase

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Studying the boundary and defining the energy consumption and emission in the field of building involves different stages of building, including building construction, operation and demolition

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For the classification of building energy consumption, there are some differences among researchers

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On the other hand, there is a lack of a unified definition for the accounting boundary of building energy consumption and emission

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At the same time, China is in the key node of energy supply and consumption mode reform

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Figure 2 boundary of construction energy consumption and emission new building construction activities involve many aspects of energy consumption

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Most of the energy consumption and greenhouse gas emissions in the field of building occur in the two stages of building construction and operation

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As for the energy consumption of building construction, because the upstream involves many links, whether it is included in the energy consumption of building materials production and transportation will also have a great impact on the results

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When many international energy research institutions study the building energy consumption in the world, they usually divide the building energy consumption into residential building energy consumption and non residential building energy consumption [4] [5] [6], and also apply this classification to the classification of China’s building energy consumption

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At present, China is still in the stage of relatively rapid economic development, and the energy consumption structure is constantly changing, shifting from the field of material production to the field of construction and transportation [3]

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For carbon emissions related to construction, different institutions have different accounting boundaries

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Therefore, this study defines the energy consumption and greenhouse gas emissions in China’s construction sector, establishes the China building energy and emission model, calculates the building scale, energy consumption and emissions in construction and operation stages of China’s construction sector based on statistical data and field survey data, and combines with the analysis of the energy consumption and emissions of China’s construction sector According to the characteristics of energy saving and emission, the paper puts forward the policy suggestions of energy saving and low-carbon development in the construction sector

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