# Basic knowledge of Construction Engineering

Basic knowledge of construction engineering, absolute dry goods! 1

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What is plot ratio? A: plot ratio is the ratio of the total construction area and the total land area of the project

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It is usually expressed by decimal

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The higher the plot ratio is, the lower the comfort of residents is

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Otherwise, the higher the comfort is

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2

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What is building density? A: the building density is the ratio of the total base area and the total land area of the project

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Expressed as a percentage

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High building density indicates that the houses in the land are “full”, otherwise, the houses are sparse

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3

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What is the green space rate? A: the green space rate is the ratio of the total green space area and the total land area of the project

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It is usually expressed as a percentage

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4

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What is sunshine distance? A: the sunshine distance is the distance between the front and back buildings according to the requirements of sunshine time

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The calculation of sunshine distance is generally based on the height of the wall above the windowsill on the ground floor of the house at noon and South on the winter solstice

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5

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What is the difference between buildings and structures? A: all houses or places for people’s production, living or other activities are called buildings, such as apartments, factories, schools, etc.; while buildings where people do not produce or live are called structures, such as chimneys, water towers, bridges, etc

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6

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What are the “three major materials” of architecture? A: the “three major building materials” refer to steel, cement and wood

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7

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What are the three parts of construction and installation cost? A: the construction and installation cost is composed of labor cost, material cost and machinery cost

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8, what is the first mock exam? What are basic modulus, expanded modulus and sub modulus? (1) the first mock exam system is a set of basic rules for the standardization of design, so that the sizes of different buildings and sub divisions should be unified and coordinated so that they can be universal and interchangeably, so as to speed up design, improve construction efficiency and reduce the price

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(2) Basic module is the basic dimension unit selected in module coordination, which is expressed by m, 1m = 1000mm

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(3) Expanded modulus is a kind of derived modulus whose value is a multiple of the basic modulus

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There are six kinds of expanded modulus, which are 3M (3000mm), 6m (6000mm), 12m (12000mm), 15m (15000mm), 30m (30000mm) and 60m (60000mm)

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The larger size of the building, such as Bay, depth, span, column spacing, etc., should be a multiple of a certain expanded modulus

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(4) Sub module is another kind of derived module, and its value is the sub multiple of the basic module

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There are three kinds of modulus, which are 1 / 10m (100 mm), 1 / 5m (200 mm) and 1 / 2m (500 mm)

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The smaller size in the building, such as gap, wall thickness, structural node, etc., should be a multiple of a certain sub module

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9

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What are the mark size, construction size and actual size? (1) Sign size is used to mark the distance between building positioning axes (Bay, depth), and the size between the boundaries of building products, building components and accessories, and the location of related equipment

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The size of the sign shall meet the requirements of the modular system

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(2) Structural dimension is the design dimension of building products and components

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The construction size is less than or greater than the mark size

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Generally, the construction size plus the reserved gap size or minus the necessary support size is equal to the sign size

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(3) The actual size is the actual size of building products and building components

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The difference between the actual size and the structural size shall be the allowable building tolerance value

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10

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What is positioning axis? Answer: the positioning axis is the line used to determine the position of the main structure or component of the building and the size of the sign

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11

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What is horizontal and vertical? What are the transverse axis and the longitudinal axis? (1) Transverse, refers to the width direction of the building

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(2) Longitudinal direction refers to the length direction of a building

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(3) The axis set along the width of the building is called the transverse axis

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The numbering method is written in Arabic numerals from left to right in the axis circle

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(4) The axis along the length of the building is called the longitudinal axis

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The numbering method is written in capital letters from top to bottom in the axis circle (the letters I, O and Z are not used)

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12

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What is the room and depth of a house? A: Bay refers to the width of a house and the distance between two horizontal axes; depth refers to the depth of a house and the distance between two vertical axes

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13

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What is floor height? What is clear height? A: floor height refers to the height between floors of a building, and the height from the floor or ground to the next floor or ground; clear height refers to the clear height of a room, and the height from the ground to the underside of the ceiling

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14

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What is the total height of a building? A: the total height of the building refers to the total height from the outdoor terrace to the top of the cornice

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15

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What is elevation? What are absolute elevation and relative elevation? (1) The elevation difference between a certain part of a building and a certain water datum point is called the elevation of the part

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(2) Absolute elevation is also known as altitude

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China sets the average sea level of the Yellow Sea near Qingdao as the zero point of absolute elevation, and the elevation of all parts of the country is based on this

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(3) The relative elevation is based on the ground of the main rooms on the first floor of the building as the zero point (+ 0.00), indicating the height of a place from the ground of the first floor

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16

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What is the construction area, use area, utilization rate? What are the traffic area and structural area? (1) Building area refers to the product of the length and width of the building and the number of floors

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It consists of use area, traffic area and structure area

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(2) Use area refers to the net area of the main use room and auxiliary use room (the net area is the product of the net size of the axis size minus the wall thickness)

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(3) Occupancy rate, also known as occupancy rate, refers to the percentage of occupied area in building area

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(4) Traffic area refers to the net area of corridor, staircase, elevator and other traffic facilities

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(5) Structural area refers to the area occupied by walls and columns

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17

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What is the red line? A: the red line refers to the area of land occupied by the construction unit approved by the planning department

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Generally, it is circled in red pen on the drawing and has legal effect

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18

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(1) According to the durability level, it can be divided into four levels: Level 1, with a durability period of more than 100 years; Level 2, with a durability period of 50-100 years; Level 3, with a durability period of 25-50 years; level 4, with a durability period of less than 15 years

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(2) According to the fire resistance rating, it can be divided into four grades: from grade one to grade four, the fire resistance capacity of buildings gradually decreases

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19

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What is brick concrete structure? Answer: the vertical load-bearing components of the house are brick walls or columns, and the horizontal load-bearing components are reinforced concrete floors and roof slabs

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This kind of structure is called brick concrete structure

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20

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What is frame structure? A: the frame structure refers to the frame composed of columns, longitudinal beams, transverse beams and floors as the load-bearing structure, and the wall is the enclosure structure

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21

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What is shear wall? Answer: shear wall refers to the wall added in the frame structure to resist horizontal shear force

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Because the high-rise building to resist the horizontal shear force is mainly caused by the earthquake, so the shear wall is also called seismic wall

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22

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What is shear wall structure? A: the shear wall structure refers to the structure in which the vertical load is borne by the frame and the shear wall; the horizontal load is borne by the frame by 20% ~ 30%, and the shear wall by 70% ~ 80%

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The length of shear wall is designed according to the standard of 50 mm per square meter of building

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23

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What is full shear wall structure? Answer: the full shear wall structure is a structure that uses the internal wall (or internal and external wall) of the building as the bearing framework to bear the vertical and horizontal loads of the building.

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